Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 Rules

1. Perceivable - Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive.

1.1 Text Alternatives: Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.

1.1.1 Non-text Content

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LINK-1 Required Manual Check Link text content must indeicate the target of the link. NI 1.5
LINK-2 Required Pass/Warning Link text should be meaningful when taken out of context; therefore, links that point to different URIs should be unique. NI 1.5
LINK-5 Required Pass/Warning The alt text for images that are part of links should not be the same as the text content of the link. NI 1.5
IMGINFO-1 Required Pass/Fail Every img element must have alt attribute. 1.0 1.5
IMGINFO-2 Required Pass/Warning Descriptions should be meaningful and contain at least 7 and less than 90 characters. NI 1.5
IMGINFO-3 Required Pass/Warning The alt attribute content should not include file name of the image. NI 1.5
IMGINFO-4 Required Pass/Warning The alt attribute content should not include information that is redundant with the img element. NI 1.5
IMGDEC-1 Required Pass/Warning Images should not be used for styling 1.0 1.5
IMGDEC-2 Required Pass/Warning * Small inline images should not be used for styling. NI 1.5
PDF-TAGS-12 Required Manual Check Figures and other images must be identifed with the Figure tag and include a alternative text attribute NI NI
PDF-TAGS-13 Required Manual Check Mathematical formulas must be identifed with the Formula tag and Alt entry that describes the image NI NI

1.2 Time-based Media: Provide alternatives for time-based media.

1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded)

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
MEDIA-5 Required Manual Check Audio objects and video objects with audio must not automatically play sound when the page is loaded. NI NI

1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded)

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
MEDIA-1 Required Manual Check Video and audio objects must have captions and/or text transcripts . NI NI
MEDIA-2 Required Manual Check Video objects must have synchronized text captions. NI NI
PDF-MEDIA-1 Required Manual Check * Embedded media objects that are only contain audio tracks must have a text transcription NI NI
PDF-MEDIA-2 Required Manual Check * Embedded media objects that includes both video and audio tracks must have a synchoronized text captions NI NI

1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded)

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
MEDIA-3 Required Manual Check Video objects must have audio descriptions if it contains essential visual information that is not discernable from the dialog or audio track. NI NI

1.2.4 Captions (Live)

No rules

1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded)

No rules

1.2.6 Sign Language (Prerecorded)

No rules

1.2.7 Extended Audio Description (Prerecorded)

No rules

1.2.8 Media Alternative (Prerecorded)

No rules

1.2.9 Audio-only (Live)

No rules

1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.

1.3.1 Info and Relationships

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
FORM-1 Required Manual Check The effective Label for a form control must uniquely identify the purpose of a form control on a web page. NI NI
FORM-2 Required Pass/Fail The elements input[type="text | password | checkbox | radio | file"], select and textarea must have labels. 1.0 1.5
FORM-3 Required Pass/Fail The element input[type="image"] must have alt text: 1.0 1.5
FORM-4 Required Pass/Fail The elements input[type="button"] must have and input[type=[submit | reset"] may have value text. 1.0 1.5
FORM-5 Required Pass/Fail Each label, button and legend element must contain text content. 1.0 1.5
FORM-7 Required Pass/Fail If a form control has an id attribute its value must be unique on the page. 1.0 1.5
FORM-11 Desirable Manual Check Style the form control with focus differently than form controls without focus. NI NI
LIST-1 Required Pass/Warning Do not use paragraph or div elements to create lists. NI NI
LIST-2 Required Pass/Warning Do not use inline images to create the appearance of a list. NI NI
LIST-3 Desirable Pass/Warning Nested lists deeper than 5 levels are difficult for people to understand, especially screen reader users. NI NI
DTABLE-1 Required Pass/Fail For each data table, the first cell in each column must be a th element, and each row must contain at least one th element 1.0 1.5
DTABLE-2 Required Pass/Fail Each data table must have a nonempty summary attribute. 1.0 1.5
DTABLE-3 Required Pass/Fail Each th element in a complex data table must have ad id attribute whose value is unique relative to all ids on the page. 1.0 1.5
DTABLE-4 Required Pass/Fail Each td element in a complex data table must have a headers attribute that references the id attributes of associated th elements. 1.0 1.5
DTABLE-5 Required Pass/Warning The summary attribute value for each data table on a page should be unique. 1.0 1.5
PDF-TAGS-7 Required Manual Check Content organized as a list must use list tags NI NI
PDF-TAGS-8 Required Manual Check Tabular data must use table markup for either simple or complex table tagging NI NI
PDF-BOOK-1 Required Manual Check For documents longer than 8, book marks should be used for the H1 and H2 tags NI NI
PDF-BOOK-2 Required Manual Check For documents longer than 40, book marks should be used for the H1, H2 and H3 tags NI NI
PDF-BOOK-3 Required Manual Check For documents longer than 100, book marks should be used for the H1, H2, H3 and H4 tags NI NI

1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LINEAR-1 Required Pass/Check When tables are used for layout, make sure the reading order makes sense when layout table markup is removed. NI NI
LINEAR-2 Required Pass/Check When CSS absolute positioning is used for layout, make sure the reading order makes sense when stylesheets are disabled. NI NI
LAYOUT-1 Required Pass/Fail/Warning Use CSS properties instead of tables and nested tables to visually layout of content. 1.0 1.5

1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics

No rules

1.4 Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.

1.4.1 Use of Color

No rules

1.4.2 Audio Control

No rules

1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum)

No rules

1.4.4 Resize text

No rules

1.4.5 Images of Text

No rules

1.4.6 Contrast (Enhanced)

No rules

1.4.7 Low or No Background Audio

No rules

1.4.8 Visual Presentation

No rules

1.4.9 Images of Text (No Exception)

No rules

2. Operable - User interface components and navigation must be operable.

2.1 Keyboard Accessible: Make all functionality available from a keyboard.

2.1.1 Keyboard

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
DO-1 Required Pass/Check Keyboard equivalents must be included for functionality provided by onmousedown, onmouseup and onmousemove event handlers. 1.0 1.5
EVTOVR-1 Required Pass/Warning Every onmouseover event handler that is on a focusable element must have a corresponding onfocus event handler. 1.0 1.5
EVTOVR-2 Required Pass/Warning Every onmouseout event handler that is on a focusable element must have a corresponding onblur event handler. 1.0 1.5
EVTOVR-3 Required Pass/Warning Every onmouseover or onmouseout event handler that is not on a focusable element should use CSS :hover psuedo element to provide the stylistic changes. 1.0 1.5
KEY-1 Required Manual Check All links, form controls and other interactive elements on the page must be able to receive keyboard focus (i.e. the TAB key on many browsers). NI NI
KEY-2 Required Manual Check All links, form controls and other interactive elements (i.e. Flash, Java Applets, Javascript widgets) on the page must <strong>not</strong> trap keyboard focus. NI NI
KEY-3 Required Manual Check The functions or actions of the links, form controls or other interactive elements must be operable with the keyboard. NI NI

2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
EVTCH-1 Required Pass/Check onChange event handler should not be used with the select element to cause a automatic change of focus or load a page. 1.0 1.5
EVTCLK-1 Required Pass/Fail Every onClick event handler should be on a focusable element. 1.0 1.5
KEY-1 Required Manual Check All links, form controls and other interactive elements on the page must be able to receive keyboard focus (i.e. the TAB key on many browsers). NI NI
KEY-2 Required Manual Check All links, form controls and other interactive elements (i.e. Flash, Java Applets, Javascript widgets) on the page must <strong>not</strong> trap keyboard focus. NI NI
KEY-3 Required Manual Check The functions or actions of the links, form controls or other interactive elements must be operable with the keyboard. NI NI

2.1.3 Keyboard (No Exception)

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
AKEY-1 Desirable Pass/Warning accesskey attribute values should be unique. 1.0 1.5
AKEY-2 Desirable Pass/Check accesskey attribute values should not interfere with Microsoft Internet Explorer menu shortcuts. 1.0 1.5
KEY-1 Required Manual Check All links, form controls and other interactive elements on the page must be able to receive keyboard focus (i.e. the TAB key on many browsers). NI NI
KEY-2 Required Manual Check All links, form controls and other interactive elements (i.e. Flash, Java Applets, Javascript widgets) on the page must <strong>not</strong> trap keyboard focus. NI NI
KEY-3 Required Manual Check The functions or actions of the links, form controls or other interactive elements must be operable with the keyboard. NI NI

2.2 Enough Time: Provide users enough time to read and use content.

2.2.1 Timing Adjustable

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
MEDIA-4 Desirable Manual Check Video and audio objects should have controls to pause, play, stop and restart. NI NI

2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide

No rules

2.2.3 No Timing

No rules

2.2.4 Interruptions

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
IMGLINK-1 Required Reference * See the "best practice rules for links":http://webaccessibility.cita.illinois.edu/nav/link/rules/ NI NI
MAP-1 Required Pass/Fail Every area element must have alt attribute content. NI NI

2.2.5 Re-authenticating

No rules

2.3 Seizures: Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.

2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold

No rules

2.3.2 Three Flashes

No rules

2.4 Navigable: Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.

2.4.1 Bypass Blocks

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
MENU-1 Required Manual Check Lists of links that are used to provide web site or within page navigation must be identified as navigation bars NI NI
MENU-2 Required Pass/Fail The h2 element or another heading element must precede ul and ol elements that appear to be navigation bars. 1.0 1.5
MENU-3 Required Pass/Fail The h2 element or another heading element must precede map elements containing area elements that appear to be a navigation bars. 1.0 1.5
MENU-4 Required Pass/Warning Each area element should have a redundant text link (a element) with href values matching the href values of the area elements. 1.0 1.5
MENU-5 Required Pass/Check Most pages should contain at least one navigation bar. NI NI
LINK-6 Required Pass/Check The first link on a page should be a skip navigation link. NI 1.5
LINK-7 Required Pass/Check Internal links need to set tabindex=-1 for compatibilty with Internet Explorer. NI 1.5
PDF-BOOK-1 Required Manual Check For documents longer than 8, book marks should be used for the H1 and H2 tags NI NI
PDF-BOOK-2 Required Manual Check For documents longer than 40, book marks should be used for the H1, H2 and H3 tags NI NI
PDF-BOOK-3 Required Manual Check For documents longer than 100, book marks should be used for the H1, H2, H3 and H4 tags NI NI

2.4.2 Page Titled

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
TITLE-1 Required Pass/Fail The page must contain exactly one title element. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-2 Required Pass/Fail The page must contain at least one h1 element. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-3 Required Pass/Fail The title element must contain text content 1.0 1.5
TITLE-4 Required Pass/Fail The h1 element must contain text content. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-5 Desirable Pass/Warning The page should contain no more than two h1 elements. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-6 Required Pass/Warning The text content of the h1 element should match all or part of the text content of the title element. 1.0 NI
TITLE-7 Required Pass/Warning The text content of an h1 element should not only come from the alt attribute of img elements. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-8 Required Pass/Check The last h1 element content for pages within the same domain should be unique. NI NI
TITLE-9 Required Pass/Check The first 60 characters of title element content for pages within the same domain should be unique. NI NI
TITLE-10 Required Manual Check The title content accurately identifies the web site and uniquely identifies the content of this page from other pages in the website. NI NI
PDF-TAGS-1 Required Pass/Fail Documents must have tags NI NI

2.4.3 Focus Order

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
FORM-15 Required Manual Check Ensure that form fields are in a logical tabbing order. NI 1.5 View
LINK-7 Required Pass/Check Internal links need to set tabindex=-1 for compatibilty with Internet Explorer. NI 1.5

2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context)

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LINK-1 Required Manual Check Link text content must indeicate the target of the link. NI 1.5
LINK-2 Required Pass/Warning Link text should be meaningful when taken out of context; therefore, links that point to different URIs should be unique. NI 1.5
LINK-5 Required Pass/Warning The alt text for images that are part of links should not be the same as the text content of the link. NI 1.5

2.4.5 Multiple Ways

No rules

2.4.6 Headings and Labels

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
TITLE-1 Required Pass/Fail The page must contain exactly one title element. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-2 Required Pass/Fail The page must contain at least one h1 element. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-4 Required Pass/Fail The h1 element must contain text content. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-5 Required Pass/Warning The page should contain no more than two h1 elements. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-6 Required Pass/Warning The text content of the h1 element should match all or part of the text content of the title element. 1.0 NI
TITLE-7 Required Pass/Warning The text content of an h1 element should not only come from the alt attribute of img elements. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-8 Required Pass/Check The last h1 element content for pages within the same domain should be unique. NI NI
TITLE-9 Required Pass/Check The first 60 characters of title element content for pages within the same domain should be unique. NI NI
TITLE-10 Required Manual Check The title content accurately identifies the web site and uniquely identifies the content of this page from other pages in the website. NI NI
HEAD-1 Required Manual Check Each section of a web page must have a heading and the heading must describe content of the section. NI NI
HEAD-2 Required Pass/Fail Heading elements that follow the last h1 element must be properly nested. 1.0 1.5
HEAD-3 Required Pass/Fail All subheadings (h2...h6) must contain text content. 1.0 1.5
HEAD-4 Required Pass/Warning Sub haedings of the same level should have content between the headings NI NI
HEAD-5 Required Pass/Warning The text content of headings of the same level within the same section should be unique. 1.0 1.5
HEAD-6 Required Pass/Warning The text content of an subheading element (h2-h6) should not only come from the alt attribute value of img elements. 1.0 1.5
HEAD-7 Desirable Pass/Warning The text content of headings should be concise (less than 65 characters). NI 1.5
FORM-8 Required Pass/Warning Each _effective label_ within a page should be unique. NI 1.5
PDF-FORM-1 Required Manual Check All form controls must use the tooltip tag to label a form control NI NI
PDF-FORM-2 Required Manual Check Tooltips used to label form controls must not be empty NI NI
PDF-FORM-3 Required Manual Check Tooltips must be unique NI NI
PDF-FORM-4 Required Manual Check Tab order should follow a logical pattern to complete the form NI NI

2.4.7 Focus Visible

No rules

2.4.8 Location

No rules

2.4.9 Link Purpose (Link Only)

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LINK-1 Required Manual Check Link text content must indeicate the target of the link. NI 1.5
LINK-2 Required Pass/Warning Link text should be meaningful when taken out of context; therefore, links that point to different URIs should be unique. NI 1.5
LINK-5 Required Pass/Warning The alt text for images that are part of links should not be the same as the text content of the link. NI 1.5

2.4.10 Section Headings

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
PDF-TAGS-4 Required Pass/Fail Heading tags must be properly nested. NI NI
PDF-TAGS-5 Required Pass/Fail The content of Heading tags must contain text NI NI

3. Understandable - Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable.

3.1 Readable: Make text content readable and understandable.

3.1.1 Language of Page: The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically determined.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LANG-1 Required Pass/Fail Each page must have a lang attribute on its html element whose value is a valid two-character language code. 1.0 1.5

3.1.2 Language of Parts: The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined except for proper names, technical terms, words of indeterminate language, and words or phrases that have become part of the vernacular of the immediately surrounding text.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LANG-2 Required Pass/Check Markup must used to indicate changes from the default language on a page. NI NI

3.1.3 Unusual Words: A mechanism is available for identifying specific definitions of words or phrases used in an unusual or restricted way, including idioms and jargon.

No rules

3.1.4 Abbreviations: A mechanism for identifying the expanded form or meaning of abbreviations is available.

No rules

3.1.5 Reading Level: When text requires reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level after removal of proper names and titles, supplemental content, or a version that does not require reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level, is available.

No rules

3.1.6 Pronunciation: A mechanism is available for identifying specific pronunciation of words where meaning of the words, in context, is ambiguous without knowing the pronunciation.

No rules

3.2 Predictable: Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.

3.2.1 On Focus: When any component receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context.

No rules

3.2.2 On Input: Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behavior before using the component.

No rules

3.2.3 Consistent Navigation: Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user.

No rules

3.2.4 Consistent Identification: Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently.

No rules

3.2.5 Change on Request: Changes of context are initiated only by user request or a mechanism is available to turn off such changes.

No rules

3.3 Input Assistance: Help users avoid and correct mistakes.

3.3.1 Error Identification: If an input error is automatically detected, the item that is in error is identified and the error is described to the user in text.

No rules

3.3.2 Labels or Instructions: Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
FORM-9 Required Pass/Check Text content that cannot receive the focus should not be placed between form controls. NI NI
FORM-10 Required Pass/Check Use CSS to allow form control text size to change with the zoom setting of the browser. NI NI
FORM-12 Required Manual Check Required form controls should have the word "required" as part of the effective label. NI 1.5 View
FORM-13 Required Manual Check Invalid form controls should have the word "invalid" as part of the effective label. NI 1.5 View

3.3.3 Error Suggestion: If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
FORM-14 Required Manual Check Browser or client side (i.e. using javascript) validation of a form control values NI 1.5 View

3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data): For Web pages that cause legal commitments or financial transactions for the user to occur, that modify or delete user-controllable data in data storage systems, or that submit user test responses, at least one of the following is true:

No rules

3.3.5 Help: Context-sensitive help is available.

No rules

3.3.6 Error Prevention (All): For Web pages that require the user to submit information, at least one of the following is true

No rules

4. Robust - Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies.

4.1 Compatible: Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.

4.1.1 Parsing: In content implemented using markup languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
TEXT-1 Required Pass/Warning The font and center elements should not be used for text styling or positioning, instead use structural markup should be used with CSS for styling. 1.0 1.5
TEXT-2 Required Pass/Warning The b element should not be used to bold text content. 1.0 1.5
TEXT-3 Required Pass/Warning The i element must not be used to italicize text content. 1.0 1.5
TEXT-4 Required Pass/Warning The u element must not be used to underline text content. 1.0 1.5
TEXT-5 Required Pass/Fail The blink and marquee elements must not be used. 1.0 1.5
HTML-1 Required Pass/Fail Each page must include a DOCTYPE declaration to facilitate rendering and validation. NI NI
HTML-2 Required Pass/Fail The character encoding of each page should be specified. NI NI
CSS-1 Desirable Pass/Warning Each page should link to a CSS style sheet NI NI

4.1.2 Name, Role, Value: For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
FRAME-1 Required Pass/Fail Every frame and iframe element must have a title attribute must have content that describes the purpose of the frame. 1.0 1.5
FRAME-2 Required Pass/Fail The title attribute content for each frame must be unique within a frameset. 1.0 1.5
FRAME-3 Required Pass/Fail The title attribute content for each iframe must be unique within a web page. NI NI
FRAME-4 Desirable Pass/Warning Hidden or empty frames should not be used. NI NI
PDF-TEXT-1 Required Manual Check All text in the physical view must also be in the content view NI NI
PDF-ORDER-1 Required Manual Check The order of text must make sense when linearized NI NI
PDF-TAGS-13 Required Manual Check Mathematical formulas must be identifed with the Formula tag and Alt entry that describes the image NI NI