Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 Rules

Guideline 1. Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content.

Checkpoint 1.1 Provide a text equivalent for every non-text element (e.g., via "alt", "longdesc", or in element content). This includes: images, graphical representations of text (including symbols), image map regions, animations (e.g., animated GIFs), applets and programmatic objects, ascii art, frames, scripts, images used as list bullets, spacers, graphical buttons, sounds (played with or without user interaction), stand-alone audio files, audio tracks of video, and video.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
IMGINFO-1 Required Pass/Fail Every img element must have alt attribute. 1.0 1.5
IMGINFO-2 Required Pass/Warning Descriptions should be meaningful and contain at least 7 and less than 90 characters. NI 1.5
IMGINFO-3 Required Pass/Warning The alt attribute content should not include file name of the image. NI 1.5
IMGINFO-4 Required Pass/Warning The alt attribute content should not include information that is redundant with the img element. NI 1.5
MEDIA-1 Required Manual Check Video and audio objects must have captions and/or text transcripts . NI NI
MEDIA-5 Required Manual Check Audio objects and video objects with audio must not automatically play sound when the page is loaded. NI NI
PDF-TAGS-12 Required Manual Check Figures and other images must be identifed with the Figure tag and include a alternative text attribute NI NI
PDF-TAGS-13 Required Manual Check Mathematical formulas must be identifed with the Formula tag and Alt entry that describes the image NI NI

Checkpoint 1.2 Provide redundant text links for each active region of a server-side image map.

No rules

Checkpoint 1.3 Until user agents can automatically read aloud the text equivalent of a visual track, provide an auditory description of the important information of the visual track of a multimedia presentation.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
MEDIA-3 Required Manual Check Video objects must have audio descriptions if it contains essential visual information that is not discernable from the dialog or audio track. NI NI

Checkpoint 1.4 For any time-based multimedia presentation (e.g., a movie or animation), synchronize equivalent alternatives (e.g., captions or auditory descriptions of the visual track) with the presentation.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
MEDIA-2 Required Manual Check Video objects must have synchronized text captions. NI NI
PDF-MEDIA-1 Required Manual Check * Embedded media objects that are only contain audio tracks must have a text transcription NI NI
PDF-MEDIA-2 Required Manual Check * Embedded media objects that includes both video and audio tracks must have a synchoronized text captions NI NI

Checkpoint 1.5 Until user agents render text equivalents for client-side image map links, provide redundant text links for each active region of a client-side image map.

No rules

Guideline 2. Don/t rely on color alone.

Checkpoint 2.1 Ensure that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup.

No rules

Checkpoint 2.2 Ensure that foreground and background color combinations provide sufficient contrast when viewed by someone having color deficits or when viewed on a black and white screen.

No rules

Guideline 3. Use markup and style sheets and do so properly.

Checkpoint 3.1 When an appropriate markup language exists, use markup rather than images to convey information.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
TITLE-1 Required Pass/Fail The page must contain exactly one title element. 1.0 1.5

Checkpoint 3.2 Create documents that validate to published formal grammars.

No rules

Checkpoint 3.3 Use style sheets to control layout and presentation.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
EVTOVR-3 Required Pass/Warning Every onmouseover or onmouseout event handler that is not on a focusable element should use CSS :hover psuedo element to provide the stylistic changes. 1.0 1.5

Checkpoint 3.4 Use relative rather than absolute units in markup language attribute values and style sheet property values.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
FORM-10 Required Pass/Check Use CSS to allow form control text size to change with the zoom setting of the browser. NI NI

Checkpoint 3.5 Use header elements to convey document structure and use them according to specification.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
TITLE-2 Required Pass/Fail The page must contain at least one h1 element. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-4 Required Pass/Fail The h1 element must contain text content. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-5 Required Pass/Warning The page should contain no more than two h1 elements. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-6 Required Pass/Warning The text content of the h1 element should match all or part of the text content of the title element. 1.0 NI
TITLE-7 Required Pass/Warning The text content of an h1 element should not only come from the alt attribute of img elements. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-8 Required Pass/Check The last h1 element content for pages within the same domain should be unique. NI NI
TITLE-9 Required Pass/Check The first 60 characters of title element content for pages within the same domain should be unique. NI NI
TITLE-10 Required Manual Check The title content accurately identifies the web site and uniquely identifies the content of this page from other pages in the website. NI NI
HEAD-1 Required Manual Check Each section of a web page must have a heading and the heading must describe content of the section. NI NI
HEAD-2 Required Pass/Fail Heading elements that follow the last h1 element must be properly nested. 1.0 1.5
HEAD-3 Required Pass/Fail All subheadings (h2...h6) must contain text content. 1.0 1.5
HEAD-4 Required Pass/Warning Sub haedings of the same level should have content between the headings NI NI
HEAD-5 Required Pass/Warning The text content of headings of the same level within the same section should be unique. 1.0 1.5
HEAD-6 Required Pass/Warning The text content of an subheading element (h2-h6) should not only come from the alt attribute value of img elements. 1.0 1.5
HEAD-7 Desirable Pass/Warning The text content of headings should be concise (less than 65 characters). NI 1.5
PDF-TAGS-1 Required Pass/Fail Documents must have tags NI NI
PDF-TAGS-4 Required Pass/Fail Heading tags must be properly nested. NI NI
PDF-TAGS-5 Required Pass/Fail The content of Heading tags must contain text NI NI
PDF-BOOK-1 Required Manual Check For documents longer than 8, book marks should be used for the H1 and H2 tags NI NI
PDF-BOOK-2 Required Manual Check For documents longer than 40, book marks should be used for the H1, H2 and H3 tags NI NI
PDF-BOOK-3 Required Manual Check For documents longer than 100, book marks should be used for the H1, H2, H3 and H4 tags NI NI

Checkpoint 3.6 Mark up lists and list items properly.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LIST-1 Required Pass/Warning Do not use paragraph or div elements to create lists. NI NI
LIST-2 Required Pass/Warning Do not use inline images to create the appearance of a list. NI NI
LIST-3 Desirable Pass/Warning Nested lists deeper than 5 levels are difficult for people to understand, especially screen reader users. NI NI
PDF-TAGS-7 Required Manual Check Content organized as a list must use list tags NI NI

Checkpoint 3.7 Mark up quotations. Do not use quotation markup for formatting effects such as indentation.

No rules

Guideline 4. Clarify natural language usage

Checkpoint 4.1 Clearly identify changes in the natural language of a document/s text and any text equivalents (e.g., captions).

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LANG-2 Required Pass/Check Markup must used to indicate changes from the default language on a page. NI NI

Checkpoint 4.2 Specify the expansion of each abbreviation or acronym in a document where it first occurs.

No rules

Checkpoint 4.3 Identify the primary natural language of a document.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LANG-1 Required Pass/Fail Each page must have a lang attribute on its html element whose value is a valid two-character language code. 1.0 1.5

Guideline 5. Create tables that transform gracefully.

Checkpoint 5.1 For data tables, identify row and column headers.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
DTABLE-1 Required Pass/Fail For each data table, the first cell in each column must be a th element, and each row must contain at least one th element 1.0 1.5
PDF-TAGS-8 Required Manual Check Tabular data must use table markup for either simple or complex table tagging NI NI

Checkpoint 5.2 For data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers, use markup to associate data cells and header cells.

No rules

Checkpoint 5.3 Do not use tables for layout unless the table makes sense when linearized. Otherwise, if the table does not make sense, provide an alternative equivalent (which may be a linearized version).

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LINEAR-1 Required Pass/Check When tables are used for layout, make sure the reading order makes sense when layout table markup is removed. NI NI
LAYOUT-1 Required Pass/Fail/Warning Use CSS properties instead of tables and nested tables to visually layout of content. 1.0 1.5

Checkpoint 5.4 If a table is used for layout, do not use any structural markup for the purpose of visual formatting.

No rules

Checkpoint 5.5 Provide summaries for tables

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
DTABLE-2 Required Pass/Fail Each data table must have a nonempty summary attribute. 1.0 1.5
DTABLE-3 Required Pass/Fail Each th element in a complex data table must have ad id attribute whose value is unique relative to all ids on the page. 1.0 1.5
DTABLE-4 Required Pass/Fail Each td element in a complex data table must have a headers attribute that references the id attributes of associated th elements. 1.0 1.5
DTABLE-5 Required Pass/Warning The summary attribute value for each data table on a page should be unique. 1.0 1.5

Checkpoint 5.6 Provide abbreviations for header labels

No rules

Guideline 6. Ensure that pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully.

Checkpoint 6.1 Organize documents so they may be read without style sheets. For example, when an HTML document is rendered without associated style sheets, it must still be possible to read the document.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LINEAR-2 Required Pass/Check When CSS absolute positioning is used for layout, make sure the reading order makes sense when stylesheets are disabled. NI NI

Checkpoint 6.2 Ensure that equivalents for dynamic content are updated when the dynamic content changes.

No rules

Checkpoint 6.3 Ensure that pages are usable when scripts, applets, or other programmatic objects are turned off or not supported. If this is not possible, provide equivalent information on an alternative accessible page.

No rules

Checkpoint 6.4 For scripts and applets, ensure that event handlers are input device-independent.

No rules

Checkpoint 6.5 Ensure that dynamic content is accessible or provide an alternative presentation or page.

No rules

Guideline 7. Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes.

Checkpoint 7.1 Until user agents allow users to control flickering, avoid causing the screen to flicker.

No rules

Checkpoint 7.2 Until user agents allow users to control blinking, avoid causing content to blink (i.e., change presentation at a regular rate, such as turning on and off).

No rules

Checkpoint 7.3 Until user agents allow users to freeze moving content, avoid movement in pages.

No rules

Checkpoint 7.4 Until user agents provide the ability to stop the refresh, do not create periodically auto-refreshing pages.

No rules

Checkpoint 7.5 Until user agents provide the ability to stop auto-redirect, do not use markup to redirect pages automatically. Instead, configure the server to perform redirects.

No rules

Guideline 8. Ensure direct accessibility of embedded user interfaces.

Checkpoint 8.1 Make programmatic elements such as scripts and applets directly accessible or compatible with assistive technologies.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
MEDIA-4 Desirable Manual Check Video and audio objects should have controls to pause, play, stop and restart. NI NI
EVTCH-1 Required Pass/Check onChange event handler should not be used with the select element to cause a automatic change of focus or load a page. 1.0 1.5
EVTCLK-1 Required Pass/Fail Every onClick event handler should be on a focusable element. 1.0 1.5

Guideline 9. Design for device-independence.

Checkpoint 9.1 Provide client-side image maps instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.

No rules

Checkpoint 9.2 Ensure that any element that has its own interface can be operated in a device-independent manner.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
DO-1 Required Pass/Check Keyboard equivalents must be included for functionality provided by onmousedown, onmouseup and onmousemove event handlers. 1.0 1.5
EVTOVR-1 Required Pass/Warning Every onmouseover event handler that is on a focusable element must have a corresponding onfocus event handler. 1.0 1.5
EVTOVR-2 Required Pass/Warning Every onmouseout event handler that is on a focusable element must have a corresponding onblur event handler. 1.0 1.5
KEY-1 Required Manual Check All links, form controls and other interactive elements on the page must be able to receive keyboard focus (i.e. the TAB key on many browsers). NI NI
KEY-2 Required Manual Check All links, form controls and other interactive elements (i.e. Flash, Java Applets, Javascript widgets) on the page must <strong>not</strong> trap keyboard focus. NI NI
KEY-3 Required Manual Check The functions or actions of the links, form controls or other interactive elements must be operable with the keyboard. NI NI

Checkpoint 9.3 For scripts, specify logical event handlers rather than device-dependent event handlers.

No rules

Checkpoint 9.4 Create a logical tab order through links, form controls, and objects.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
FORM-15 Required Manual Check Ensure that form fields are in a logical tabbing order. NI 1.5 View
KEY-1 Required Manual Check All links, form controls and other interactive elements on the page must be able to receive keyboard focus (i.e. the TAB key on many browsers). NI NI
KEY-2 Required Manual Check All links, form controls and other interactive elements (i.e. Flash, Java Applets, Javascript widgets) on the page must <strong>not</strong> trap keyboard focus. NI NI
KEY-3 Required Manual Check The functions or actions of the links, form controls or other interactive elements must be operable with the keyboard. NI NI

Checkpoint 9.5 Provide keyboard shortcuts to important links (including those in client-side image maps), form controls, and groups of form controls.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
AKEY-1 Required Pass/Warning accesskey attribute values should be unique. 1.0 1.5
AKEY-2 Required Pass/Check accesskey attribute values should not interfere with Microsoft Internet Explorer menu shortcuts. 1.0 1.5
PDF-BOOK-1 Required Manual Check For documents longer than 8, book marks should be used for the H1 and H2 tags NI NI
PDF-BOOK-2 Required Manual Check For documents longer than 40, book marks should be used for the H1, H2 and H3 tags NI NI
PDF-BOOK-3 Required Manual Check For documents longer than 100, book marks should be used for the H1, H2, H3 and H4 tags NI NI

Guideline 10. Use interim solutions.

Checkpoint 10.1 Until user agents allow users to turn off spawned windows, do not cause pop-ups or other windows to appear and do not change the current window without informing the user.

No rules

Checkpoint 10.2 Until user agents support explicit associations between labels and form controls, for all form controls with implicitly associated labels, ensure that the label is properly positioned.

No rules

Checkpoint 10.3 Until user agents (including assistive technologies) render side-by-side text correctly, provide a linear text alternative (on the current page or some other) for all tables that lay out text in parallel, word-wrapped columns.

No rules

Checkpoint 10.4 Until user agents handle empty controls correctly, include default, place-holding characters in edit boxes and text areas.

No rules

Checkpoint 10.5 Until user agents (including assistive technologies) render adjacent links distinctly, include non-link, printable characters (surrounded by spaces) between adjacent links.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LINK-3 Required Pass/Warning An image that is the entire content of a link should be at least 16x16 pixels in size. NI 1.5
LINK-4 Required Pass/Warning The text content of a link should be at least 4 characters in length when rendered graphically. NI 1.5
LINK-8 Required Pass/Check Small links should not be placed close together. NI NI

Guideline 11. Use W3C technologies and guidelines.

Checkpoint 11.1 Use W3C technologies when they are available and appropriate for a task and use the latest versions when supported.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
IMGDEC-1 Required Pass/Warning Images should not be used for styling 1.0 1.5
IMGDEC-2 Required Pass/Warning * Small inline images should not be used for styling. NI 1.5
IMGLINK-1 Required Reference * See the "best practice rules for links":http://webaccessibility.cita.illinois.edu/nav/link/rules/ NI NI
MAP-1 Required Pass/Fail Every area element must have alt attribute content. NI NI
HTML-1 Required Pass/Fail Each page must include a DOCTYPE declaration to facilitate rendering and validation. NI NI
HTML-2 Required Pass/Fail The character encoding of each page should be specified. NI NI
CSS-1 Required Pass/Warning Each page should link to a CSS style sheet NI NI

Checkpoint 11.2 Avoid deprecated features of W3C technologies.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
TEXT-1 Required Pass/Warning The font and center elements should not be used for text styling or positioning, instead use structural markup should be used with CSS for styling. 1.0 1.5
TEXT-2 Required Pass/Warning The b element should not be used to bold text content. 1.0 1.5
TEXT-3 Required Pass/Warning The i element must not be used to italicize text content. 1.0 1.5
TEXT-4 Required Pass/Warning The u element must not be used to underline text content. 1.0 1.5
TEXT-5 Required Pass/Fail The blink and marquee elements must not be used. 1.0 1.5

Checkpoint 11.3 Provide information so that users may receive documents according to their preferences (e.g., language, content type, etc.).

No rules

Checkpoint 11.4 If, after best efforts, you cannot create an accessible page, provide a link to an alternative page that uses W3C technologies, is accessible, has equivalent information (or functionality), and is updated as often as the inaccessible (original) page.

No rules

Guideline 12. Provide context and orientation information.

Checkpoint 12.1 Title each frame to facilitate frame identification and navigation.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
FRAME-1 Required Pass/Fail Every frame and iframe element must have a title attribute must have content that describes the purpose of the frame. 1.0 1.5
FRAME-2 Required Pass/Fail The title attribute content for each frame must be unique within a frameset. 1.0 1.5
FRAME-3 Required Pass/Fail The title attribute content for each iframe must be unique within a web page. NI NI

Checkpoint 12.2 Describe the purpose of frames and how frames relate to each other if it is not obvious by frame titles alone.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
FRAME-4 Desirable Pass/Warning Hidden or empty frames should not be used. NI NI

Checkpoint 12.3 Divide large blocks of information into more manageable groups where natural and appropriate.

No rules

Checkpoint 12.4 Associate labels explicitly with their controls.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
FORM-1 Required Manual Check The effective Label for a form control must uniquely identify the purpose of a form control on a web page. NI NI
FORM-2 Required Pass/Fail The elements input[type="text | password | checkbox | radio | file"], select and textarea must have labels. 1.0 1.5
FORM-3 Required Pass/Fail The element input[type="image"] must have alt text: 1.0 1.5
FORM-4 Required Pass/Fail The elements input[type="button"] must have and input[type=[submit | reset"] may have value text. 1.0 1.5
FORM-5 Required Pass/Fail Each label, button and legend element must contain text content. 1.0 1.5
FORM-7 Required Pass/Fail If a form control has an id attribute its value must be unique on the page. 1.0 1.5
FORM-8 Required Pass/Warning Each _effective label_ within a page should be unique. NI 1.5
FORM-12 Required Manual Check Required form controls should have the word "required" as part of the effective label. NI 1.5 View
FORM-13 Required Manual Check Invalid form controls should have the word "invalid" as part of the effective label. NI 1.5 View
PDF-FORM-1 Required Manual Check All form controls must use the tooltip tag to label a form control NI NI
PDF-FORM-2 Required Manual Check Tooltips used to label form controls must not be empty NI NI
PDF-FORM-3 Required Manual Check Tooltips must be unique NI NI
PDF-FORM-4 Required Manual Check Tab order should follow a logical pattern to complete the form NI NI

Guideline 13. Provide clear navigation mechanisms.

Checkpoint 13.1 Clearly identify the target of each link.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LINK-1 Required Manual Check Link text content must indeicate the target of the link. NI 1.5
LINK-2 Required Pass/Warning Link text should be meaningful when taken out of context; therefore, links that point to different URIs should be unique. NI 1.5
LINK-5 Required Pass/Warning The alt text for images that are part of links should not be the same as the text content of the link. NI 1.5

Checkpoint 13.2 Provide metadata to add semantic information to pages and sites.

No rules

Checkpoint 13.3 Provide information about the general layout of a site (e.g., a site map or table of contents).

No rules

Checkpoint 13.4 Use navigation mechanisms in a consistent manner.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
TITLE-2 Required Pass/Fail The page must contain at least one h1 element. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-3 Required Pass/Fail The title element must contain text content 1.0 1.5
TITLE-4 Required Pass/Fail The h1 element must contain text content. 1.0 1.5
TITLE-9 Required Pass/Check The first 60 characters of title element content for pages within the same domain should be unique. NI NI
MENU-1 Required Manual Check Lists of links that are used to provide web site or within page navigation must be identified as navigation bars NI NI
MENU-2 Required Pass/Fail The h2 element or another heading element must precede ul and ol elements that appear to be navigation bars. 1.0 1.5
MENU-3 Required Pass/Fail The h2 element or another heading element must precede map elements containing area elements that appear to be a navigation bars. 1.0 1.5
MENU-4 Required Pass/Warning Each area element should have a redundant text link (a element) with href values matching the href values of the area elements. 1.0 1.5
MENU-5 Required Pass/Check Most pages should contain at least one navigation bar. NI NI
FORM-9 Required Pass/Check Text content that cannot receive the focus should not be placed between form controls. NI NI

Checkpoint 13.5 Provide navigation bars to highlight and give access to the navigation mechanism.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
FORM-11 Required Manual Check Style the form control with focus differently than form controls without focus. NI NI

Checkpoint 13.6 Group related links, identify the group (for user agents), and, until user agents do so, provide a way to bypass the group.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
LINK-6 Required Pass/Check The first link on a page should be a skip navigation link. NI 1.5

Checkpoint 13.7 If search functions are provided, enable different types of searches for different skill levels and preferences.

No rules

Checkpoint 13.8 Place distinguishing information at the beginning of headings, paragraphs, lists, etc.

ID Importance Test
Type
Rule Description FAE Firefox
Extension
TITLE-9 Required Pass/Check The first 60 characters of title element content for pages within the same domain should be unique. NI NI

Checkpoint 13.9 Provide information about document collections (i.e., documents comprising multiple pages.).

No rules

Checkpoint 13.10 Provide a means to skip over multi-line ASCII art.

No rules

Guideline 14. Ensure that documents are clear and simple.

Checkpoint 14.1 Use the clearest and simplest language appropriate for a site/s content.

No rules

Checkpoint 14.2 Supplement text with graphic or auditory presentations where they will facilitate comprehension of the page.

No rules

Checkpoint 14.3 Create a style of presentation that is consistent across pages.

No rules