Rule TEXT-4
The u element must not be used to underline text content.


Best Practice Type: Pass/Warning

  • The u element is a deprecated feature of HTML 4.0 and was orginally defined to underline text.
  • If the text content being styled by the u element is a section heading, then the heading elements (h1-h6) should be used to replace the u element. If the text content is a paragraph, sentence, phrase or word, then the CSS text-decoration property with a value of underline should be used.


u (HTML4)

Associated Accessibility Guidelines and Standards

Guideline or
Requirement Priority Test
IITAA 1.2 Use appropriate markup to convey document structure. Required Violation
Section 508 none none
WCAG 1.0 11.2 Avoid deprecated features of W3C technologies. Required Violation
WCAG 2.0 4.1.1 Parsing: In content implemented using markup languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features. Required Violation


Evaluation Techniues


Testsuite Tests